Sunday, 18 February 2018

How To Avoid Writing Boring Stories

I often edit other people's work. I point out flaws and suggest improvements. A common request is for me to help make the work more engaging: the author may have received feedback that it is a bit slow, but they don't know what to do to fix it. In these cases the same underlying problems tend to recur, so I thought it might be useful to give examples of some of the concepts authors need to think about, using one of my works as an example. Issues such as voice; what makes a story; language and story elements need to work on more than one level; characters need to act; character actions lead to an increase in stakes.


Voice is partly made up word choice, style, pauses, and favourite phrases. Voice is also what the character focusses on. We're all different. Make your character's voice come through so we feel their individuality. This is especially important in first person POV. Often I read things where there is a flat, characterless voice, because the author was writing words to move the plot, not because the author got into the character's head and let the character speak. That's what authors often mean when they refer to stories writing themselves.

Lead Characters

Don't make a boring character the lead. We've all done this. We aim at an everyman/everywoman, and end up with a bland nothing, with no life. As a result a subsidiary character steals the limelight. That subsidiary character should probably be the main character [MC], because an MC must be compelling. The reader must feel they want to know more, and they only feel that if there is depth, if there are mysteries to unravel.

Note that I say the MC must be compelling, not that they must be good. Sympathy comes about because the MC has some quality we admire. They could be evil, but maybe they are so intelligent that we're left breathless when they work things out in ways you and I never could, and come up with plans that wow us so we read on to find out how they will overcome the next, even greater problem (an example of this would be A Kiss Before Dying by Ira Levin). Maybe the MC is lazy, but their observations and thoughts are so funny they leave us in stitches. Sure, maybe they are virtuous and their resolve and goodness is put to the test in horrible circumstances, but they don't have to be good. Just compelling. The greatest crime for an author is boring the reader.

Characters Have To Act

Too often the MC is just thinking. They ponder X. They ponder Y. And pages go by without them doing anything.

It does not have to be action action, with explosions and bullets. A decision can be an action. A character in a life that traps them can still act. A brain in a jar can act. So what do I mean?

All characters want things. Ideally, like you and me, they want lots of things. But some of the things are more important than others. "Sure, that bar of chocolate would be nice, but defusing this bomb takes priority." "Yes, I want to get the dishes done by 5.30pm, but more than that I would like escape from this life of drudgery." There's a hierarchy. But we are not just describing a life in a story. A snapshot may be lovely, but it isn't a story.

A story is a story because a character tries to fulfil their needs and goals - they do things (act) in order to do achieve that. But then something gets in the way. So they do something about it. Maybe that's The End, or maybe (better for the reader!) the world reacts and things may be even worse. A more critical need or goal, or a more important one. Or even one that is truer to their real goal. At the start of Star Wars Luke Skywalker wants to go shopping for new underpants. Then he wants to rescue a princess. To do that he needs to learn to fight. Then he wants revenge. Then he wants to rescue all his friends. By the end he wants to overthrow the Tories. But each change is tied to his actions, and - massively important - the scale increases every time. This is what makes a reader read on. They are already on the edge of their seat, then they realise there are even greater things at stake. Back to another Ira Levin book, This Perfect Day: at the start the MC has no strong goals, apart from a vague interest to stop taking drugs. However, over the course of the novel, that grows to other needs, other actions, greater risks: eventually the scale increases to his life, soul, self respect, and possibly the fate of society.

So a story = characters who want things, so they act to achieve them, which may lead to new problems or discoveries and new actions needed. Repeat this until the story is told, but with an increasing scale to what is demanded of them.


Okay, here's the opening of my short story Web, seemingly about a Somalian woman and her unhappy life in the UK. The story is from They Move Below, and a few reviewers said it was their favourite story from the collection.

This country is three things to me. I list them. First, it is cold. I shiver. I think I have not stopped shaking since I was made to come here. Two, is dark. I have lost the sun that watched me grow up. This one is small and mean and is so far away it has no interest in the people here. Three, is damp. I know heavy rain, yes, but not this always-water thing. Black mould grows along tiles in the bathroom, even if I scrub, scrub a lot, it come back quickly. There is a thing in the kitchen (cupboard? But it has no cups in?) and it is not wood, it is made of something like pieces of wood, all mashed together, baby-food furniture. And where it touches ground it gets bigger, splits, crumbles, and I sweep up the bits. That is what I mean! Damp!
And things you call creepy-crawlies, they like it. They always here. They run in lines along the edge of the carpet. I get up in morning to make Husband breakfast, I see curvy slug trails drying on the worktop.
And every day I clean up thick old web. So much. This, up in the corner. I have to use long duster, it try to hide from me. I push it in, turn it, and all the sticky grey and dead bits wrap around. It remind me of something I see on your television once, called candyfloss. Your fairgrounds make people smile, but this is like making evil candyfloss as I twist sticky horrible onto it.
I would not eat this.
Many spiders in this house. Especially when it rains. That is often. And they hide from me. Leave webs in corners and cupboards and wardrobe and shelves. Laughing, saying, “This is more work for you to do! And you cannot see us!” Their voices would not be squeaky, like a fly. Spider voices are serious quiet, go straight into your head, when they watch you with all their eyes. But you can find them if you are clever. I know woodlice. We have them in Somalia too. They crawl into cracks. And there is a spider here that eats them. Easy to find – look for a pile of dried-up, dead, grey woodlice. Then look above. You will find a spider, with long legs that are fragile like hair, and mouth that can go through shell.
I squat down to see this one. I blow on the spider, let it know I won, I found it; and it go all angry, shaking its legs, shaking the web, like child having a temper tantrum. It has something in its mouth. I think it may be eggs, but no, it is dinner. A woodlouse. The spider is sucking on its face. I look more closely, my eyes are good. There are things on the woodlouse. I think they are parasites at first. The world has rules, and it is common that big things hunt smaller, but smaller ones live on bigger – danger from above and below, outside and within. But these are not parasites. It is baby woodlice. Teeny, yellow, trying to move on their mother insect, alive but trapped in strands of web, stuck to a parent that is having its juices sucked out. A noise outside startles me, like I am guilty, and I hit my head on the top of this cupboard. It is only the postman, pushing all the papers junk through letterbox. I will not look at the baby yellows again, it makes me sick.

I cannot sleep. I keep thinking of what I find hidden in this house. I am getting to know every inch. Cracks, holes, corners, shadows. Always little eyes watch. In the morning I sometimes get strands of web in my hair, from across the doorway, when I get up first. I comb it out. But that tickle, I feel it now. In the bed. Husband is sleeping. He snores when he is on his back like this, rumbling through his nose. Not aware of what is in the bed with us. But I feel that tickle, near my ankles. In the dark I can imagine the things creeping. They are getting brave if they are coming into my bed now. They must know I am awake. I do not like that they invade here. It is my last place. And now I cannot sleep because they crawl up, wanting to go up my legs, my belly, maybe to suck my face …
I move too much and wake Husband. He sounds angry.
“What is it? Why must you be fidgeting? I need my sleep, woman.”
“Please, there is something in the bed,” I tell him. “I feel it crawling on us.”
He grumbles but puts a light on. Pulls back the sheets. I brace myself to see the things moving below them, staring up at me, all cold eyes … but there is nothing. He shows me, his hand jabbing at the clean sheet.
“But I felt it.”
“It was just the hairs on my legs,” he says.
I look at them. They are hairy. Dark, hairy legs. I shudder.
“Your legs seem thinner,” I tell him.
“I must be losing weight,” he say. “I work too hard, not like these bloody English. Or you do not feed me enough. Not feed me right. I need my sleep.”
The light is out. Only the dark. I imagine little eyes watching me. Laughing at me.

Okay, let's now think about it in terms of some of the concepts I mentioned.

Her Voice

The MC's voice is very much her own: what she focusses on and gives importance to, how she sees it.

There is depth, because she hints at things. We feel there's more to her, things yet to be revealed (even if we worry we may not want to know). Also there's a strangeness to her that compels us to find out more, where she's going, where she's from, what made her, what this strange person will do. Maybe we even wonder if we can care about her, identify with her, or if she is too alien. But we feel that there is a rounded and complex personality behind the words - perhaps enhanced because we may not even be able to trust some of what we are told.

As the story continues beyond the sample, we come to suspect she has some issue relating to babies/children/mothers/women. But it is not explained yet. There is stuff going on beneath the surface, things the reader can focus on and ponder.

(Aside: always trust the reader. A common beginner fault is over-explaining, rather than letting reader grasp things for themself. An active reader is an engaged reader; a passive reader puts the book down. You know that we developmental editors say "show don't tell" a lot? This is one of the things that rule refers to.)

She Acts

It seems she cares about the house and its tidiness/cleanness at the start. A hint that she wants to have some control over something - maybe a more powerful motivation than first appears when just thinking of webs. That's a key element in stories - things should work on two levels. So here we have a surface level (the goal of tidying things) but also a deeper level (a goal, not yet acknowledged, of wanting to have some control over the world, some impact on it).

She has already made efforts to achieve this goal before the story begins, and it has been fruitless. But the effort led her to focus on spiders and their webs: and, in turn, their young. This leads her to have bad dreams and begin to relive events from her past. So her actions lead to reactions, and now things are even more serious.

So now she wants to control web and the spiders, since maybe tackling the cause of the mess would help. But she also has a lot of suppressed anger and needs an outlet for that. She has very few outlets available in her life. Spiders become one. And so, after the sample above, the heat of her anger lashes out and she burns the web and some of the spiders.

So a single action (burning the web) is actually working on two levels, trying to achieve two goals. One is tidying the house in a more extreme way (scale goes up from a duster to a lighter); but it is also dealing with her anger, trying to release it.

Writing is always best when it works harder, with multiple things going on.

I said the world must react. So this is not the end. It does not solve her problem. The house will still be messy. She is still angry. Worse: she feels guilty too, since the spiders aren't her enemies - they could be seen as vulnerable immigrants to a place that does not accept them, and she identifies with that; she also identifies with the loss of children, and that increases her guilt. So things are now worse than before. The scale of the problems has increased. If she wants to overcome these problems (for which the web is a symbol, as well as a literal problem - remember, things, must work at multiple levels) it will take more drastic action; or she will be trapped in it forever. Again, the scale of the problem and the solution goes up. But it also leads to developments. She identifies with the spiders. They are not the right target. She picked on a victim, not a persecutor. That realisation can then drive her next actions, which become even more critical. Her stakes now become break free or slowly die inside. Things have scaled up from the original desire to clean the house, and that scaling came directly from the main character's attempts to achieve modest goals.

In a short story like this we may only have one or two escalations. In a novel we may have ten, or a hundred. Some may be very small, but without them a story is flat.


Hopefully that example helped to illustrate these concepts, whilst avoiding using a story full of action in the traditional sense - to show that the concepts apply just as much to literary character pieces. If your book or story isn't compelling, if the feedback is that readers get bored, it is likely to be connected to issues mentioned in this post.

Oh, and cuts. I rarely see a book that can't benefit from cuts - every unnecessary word, sentence, paragraph, and scene slows it down, hides the good stuff. Don't show every transition, every movement. Don't use three adjectives when one would be better. Don't pad with irrelevance. But cutting is another topic for another day. For now think in terms of the other issues in this article, and you may find the thing that's turning readers off. Change the brake to an accelerator and you're off.


Tuesday, 13 February 2018

Rewriting is ...

Rewriting is deleting half the words you wrote because less is more. Because you were telling, not showing. Because first drafts are clunky. Rewriting is putting a few new words in, better words, but far fewer in number than those you delete. Rewriting is shifting things round to an order which achieves each effect in a better way. Rewriting engages a different part of the brain from the part that wrote that first draft. Rewriting takes just as long, or longer. Rewriting is more than minor tweaks. Rewriting is vital.

The image is from some rewriting I did the other day for my next book.

Draft 1 was 5,797 words.
After my first pass it was 4,571.
I cut 1,226 words, or c.20%.

(And more since then - another 200 words.)

Authors, you have to be able to do this without regrets.


Sunday, 11 February 2018

Friday, 9 February 2018

They Move Below Gets A Best Seller Label

First time I've spotted that on one of my books!

This week my dark short story collection They Move Below got Amazon's coveted orange "Best Seller" label. I may have had them before but it is the first occasion when I noticed in time to grab a screenshot! Image taken 8th February 2018. The book also topped some of the best seller charts:

It's been a good week! You can buy They Move Below here.


Thursday, 1 February 2018

Manchester Art Gallery Takes Down A Work By Waterhouse

Here is the headline:
And Manchester Art Gallery's official announcement:
When I worked in Manchester city centre I used to visit the gallery in my lunch hour or after work and spend time studying the paintings. The pre-Raphaelite works and my exploration of them with a friend even inspired one of my novels, Cold Fusion 2000 (though in the novel I transposed a key scene to the Whitworth gallery instead, for geographical reasons).

Since a gallery can only display a portion of its paintings at a time I don't mind cycling collections at all, it makes sense so that everything gets its day in the sun (or, rather, UV-reducing lights); but attempts to hide or censor the past are generally counter-productive. Instead we should analyse the past as it was, and interpret it. We can't do that when it is locked away. It's like the bowdlerised versions of books by Mark Twain or Enid Blyton (and don't mention Noddy). It's actually better to see them in the context of the time and use them as starting points for discussing changing attitudes than to pretend any offensive elements never existed. In one case we educate. In the other we miss the opportunity to do so.


Wednesday, 24 January 2018

Paypal? PayEnemy, more like. [Paypal #2]

Thanks Paypal!

 Thanks Paypal!

I call "bollocks" on that one

For background to this long-running saga, see here: Paypal Won't Pay, And They're Not An Author's Pal.

In a nutshell:

I hadn't done anything wrong or even suspicious - I had just received a royalty payment from one of the Big 5 publishers - but because Paypal automate things as much as possible, because it is cheaper than human intervention (so they can make bigger profits for their managers and shareholders), it means they applied limits on my account and from that point on I was screwed and left talking to the equivalent of a brick wall. My money was held hostage unless I sent Paypal personal data that could potentially be used for identity theft, and/or information that didn't even exist. They ignored my complaints for weeks at a time.

That post was written on 12th December 2017, after almost two months of Paypal restricting my account. What has happened in the six weeks since then? Nothing. Oh, correction: Paypal have applied even more restrictions to my account. I have no access to it. No-one can pay into it. No-one can take money out. Paypal just keeps earning interest on it. Is it a coincidence that they benefit from making it harder for customers, and the longer they can lock you out of your account, the more this pseudo-bank makes out of your money?


Saturday, 20 January 2018

Recent Promo Images

A selection of promotional images I've used since the last post on this topic.

If you go down in the woods today... Turner

Ghost in the machine - They Move Below

Festive spirit ... Lost Solace

A world seen through nostalgic misty eyes - Cold Fusion 2000

Get some Manchester attitude! 2000 Tunes

Also a trailer for They Move Below:


Friday, 19 January 2018

Thursday, 18 January 2018

Saturday, 13 January 2018

Prologues In Fiction

Jessica Norrie wrote an interesting piece about prologues in fiction yesterday. It got me thinking.

I use them sometimes. Turner has quite an extended one, which isn't immediately connected to the main novel apart from location and mood ("Oh shit, something bad is going to happen!") but becomes highly relevant later. Turner's intro is labelled as a prologue; but in a way, anything before an inciting incident is a kind of prologue, whether labelled as one or not.

Prologues get a bad rep because they are sometimes unnecessary, and don't stand alone as satisfying. That's why my favourite prologues have "Yes" as answers to the question: "Would I get something from reading it, even if it was disconnected from the rest of the book?" If it is exciting to read, or a good standalone story, or fantastic prose - then it should be fine. If it is just an infodump, then delete it.

But as with all of writing: if the end effect works, then it over-rides Every Other Rule. The best writing is an art, not a craft. Craft follows and perfects rules, but art can break them.

What do you think? Any prologues that did or didn't work for you?


Monday, 8 January 2018

Q&A With Karl Drinkwater

Recently I was interviewed on So many books, so little time. Here's a backup of the interview. Lainy had already written a great review of Lost Solace.

Welcome to So Many Books, So Little Time Karl. Thanks for taking time out for a bit of a grilling with me. FYI readers, there are some swear words ahead!

So "Lost Solace", for anyone who hasn’t read it or heard of it, tell us what is it about?

If I was being flippant, I’d say it is the first of a trilogy about a kick-arse pair of women taking on every-fucking-threat in the universe, including the military-industrial complex, and still finding time for noodles and sisterhood. I don’t want to list their main goal, because it’s one of the revelations at the end of Lost Solace. If I was being serious, I’d say it’s a sci-fi book with a heart that gives me the chance to ask questions. What is strength and humanity? Can a machine feel things like a human? How does a woman make her way in a man’s world? And how far will someone go to keep a promise?

You normally write horror, what made you change over to sci fi genre?

To be honest, horror is what I’m best known for, but it’s only one of the genres I write in. For example, my Manchester 2000 books are purely about finding love and happiness, and how our pasts and our obsessions sometimes get in the way of that; one of my current works-in-progress is a literary and contemporary short-story collection with a big focus on love and ethics. My primary interest is telling a story; the genre and style evolve out of that. My books contain different combinations of elements that fingerprint me, but not all are present in every book: examples include family, horror, suspense, love, strength, humanity, action, and reality breaking down.

Opal is a long overdue kickass strong female character, tell me about her?

She’s flawed. She’s not all-powerful. She has a depth of emotion that she dare not reveal easily. She’s righteously angry. She’s quick-thinking. She hurts. All of that means she’s human. There’s no guarantee that she’ll survive what she faces, but we want her to, because she’s noble when she can be. We root for her. She’s a Greek warrior hero, a female mix of Achilles and Odysseus. A mortal Athena (Athene). She can do what we only wish we could do. But with a hero’s achievements there can be a hero’s suffering.

Is she based on anyone you know?

Strangely, no. Many of my female characters are based on women I’ve known and admired. A reader wouldn’t know it, and the inspiring women wouldn’t necessarily recognise themselves in the characters, but I could easily say who they were. Opal is different. She grew as I wrote her. She redefined herself in the flow of words.

I loved the AI (artificial intelligence) and the relationship between the two, what made you go for an AI?

In my story notes the AI was sexless and emotionless. A pure representation of efficiency, directed towards the purpose of killing by the (originally-male) protagonist. In fact, the AI was in the form of a companion robot. But as I wrote dialogue, things would pop into my head. Weird things; clever things; humorous things, but possibly overlaying either innocence or malice. That was irresistible to me as a writer. So I let the dialogue flow and the AI began to define herself. In my original notes I hadn’t even decided if the AI was going to be good or bad. That revelation just happened.

When I started reading this, I kept thinking Event Horizon type movie with a cross of Alien, particularly the AI. Was that intentional?

Yes, they were definite influences. Not so much events, but ideas – creepy abandoned ships in space; people surviving on ingenuity when technology fails; malevolent dangers that are difficult to comprehend because they are so alien to us. Works that I respect leave me with a feeling; it’s a feeling I then try to recreate in my own worlds, so other readers can experience it. I think at one point I made a list of works that had in some way influenced me, and maybe an element of which had crept into Lost Solace. I probably had about a hundred things on the list. It’s similar to what I once did with Turner.

Lost Solace left a lot of unanswered questions, for me anyway, was that intentional and will fans get closure?

Yes to closure. A book that opens a series can be difficult. You don’t want to bind it in the darkness of exposition. Discovering Opal’s motivation is a reward. The other questions are left unanswered because, at this point, Opal doesn’t have the answers, and we generally see through her eyes. But by the end of book three – if she survives – she’ll have more answers than she ever wanted, and knowledge does not always make you happy. The reader will find out the full deal on the Lost Ships and all the other elements of the story, and the outcome may not be what you expect.

What are you working on just now?

A lot of my time is spent on writing-related activity at the moment: finding the perfect narrator for the Lost Solace audiobook, running a big promo (that got Lost Solace to #3 in Amazon’s UK sci-fi top 100!), submissions for a writing residency and prestigious prizes, and some editorial work for other authors. I’m also revamping one of my early books, 2000 Tunes, and hoping to get draft two of a new short-story collection finished. I’m also drafting out my storyboard for the sequels to Lost Solace so that when I come to write them (hopefully in the nearish future!) the first drafts will be clean and well-structured.

What kind of research do you do for this kind of book? Keeping in mind Sci Fi fans are hardcore and can be uber critical, does that make it easier or harder for you?

It didn’t feel much different from any other work I’ve written. I always do preliminary research while storyboarding, but then write the first draft and just fill in the gaps with my imagination, so as not to break the flow. Then there is a lot more research and fact-checking during the numerous rewrites. With Turner I stayed on a remote island for a week; with 2000 Tunes I researched the history of Manchester music, and the city centre layout in the year 2000; whereas with Lost Solace I was researching repair gels, ship layouts, and biological sensing systems. Luckily my degrees mean I have some background in astronomy, geology, natural science, information science and computing, so that helped shape my story. I think there was only one correction that needed making to the real science aspect.

Where can fans connect with you?

My website and blog can be found at and it links to everything else. I am active on my Facebook page and Twitter and regularly interact with everyone there. Superfans also sign up to my quirky newsletter at

Anything else you would like to add I may have forgotten?

I love hearing from people. Only today I had a long email from someone who had just read Lost Solace, and it was fascinating because it was their first book set in space. It gave me a good glimpse into how that alters the reader’s expectations. Luckily they loved the book. I’m surprised you didn’t bring cats and dogs into the conversation. Thanks for having me!


Friday, 5 January 2018

Alien Invasion Stories - Recommendations

Today I was asked about good alien invasion stories. It's a huge genre. But since I made some recommendations for horror, I'll do the same here.

I'm a fan of The Tripods trilogy by John Christopher. I re-read them all recently - they're just as good today as they were in the late 1960s. Their setting is post-invasion, but the focus on a boy is great for drip-feeding discoveries that create a surprising amount of horror for a children's book.

While talking of oldies, we mustn't forget Day of the Triffids by John Wyndham (1951). It has all the elements of a good invasion: a believable delivery mechanism, original ways of weakening our defences, and truly alien invaders.

Jumping back even further to 1897: The War of the Worlds, by H.G. Wells. It's a classic with good reason. I was always a fan of the Ooo-lahs of Jeff Wayne's 1978 musical version, which first introduced me to the song Forever Autumn (Youtube).

Less traditional invasion stories include one of my favourite novellas, Who Goes There? by John W. Campbell (1938). :-) It's a damn good horror story too, and was filmed as The Thing (1982).

A fun horror with an alien invader is Stinger by Robert McCammon (1987). A fantastic book that really gets under your skin. I'm sure it was a partial inspiration for my own alien invasion book, set in Wales, Harvest Festival - which is one of my most-reviewed books. Stinger was also the first book I read with a single page prologue that was a rewriting of a scene later in the novel.

You could also possibly include The Tommyknockers by Stephen King (1987, just like Stinger - must have been a good year for aliens).

What have I missed? Feel free to tell me in the comments.

If this post is popular I could see myself looking at other sci-fi genres that cross over with horror in the future e.g. mad science, environmental, haunted house in space etc (the latter would include Lost Solace).


Wednesday, 3 January 2018

My Horror Collection - One Of Altered Instinct's Top Five Books Of 2017

"Picking a top five from that lot is no easy task, but here, as I sip a glass of New Year rum, are my best reads of the year."

Altered Instinct has included my horror collection in their top five books of 2017!

I loved this quote about my horror collection: "Heck, if anyone can make you think of Gallagher, Herbert and Quatermass in one fell swoop, that's practically a guided tour of the classics of British horror."

Read the full article here. I'm really honoured to appear there! I always love it when my books turn up in "Best Of" lists (Jera's Jamboree, Life of a Nerdish Mum, Banshee Irish Horror Blog etc).


Monday, 1 January 2018

My Publishing Goals For 2018

Here are my publishing goals for 2018* - the bare minimum I'd like to achieve, but hopefully I'll do much more.
So there's probably something in there for everyone. If I remember, I'll return to this post and put a line through things as I complete them.


* Subject to change at a moment's notice.